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Possibly a war with the Colonists could have been averted had not a delegation of Northern Indians, headed by Cornstalk, the noted Shawnee chief.  Encouraged by the British, Cornstalk was urging Indians everywhere to unite in a war against the Colonists. The war with the Colonist began on July 20, 1776.   From the beginning the  war with the colonists went badly. The Colonists burned out many of the Cherokee towns with the loss of many lives.  In 1777 the Cherokee negotiated a peace treaty resulting in the loss of 5,000,264 acres to the Colonists.

401 - 1776, Revolution

>Not all Indians walked the “Trail of Tears”, some went by river boat, some went into the hills to hide, and others fled into new frontiers and unknown lands.

402 - A Declaration For Independence

The first ten amendments to the Constitution of the U.S., guaranteed certain rights to the people, as freedom of speech, assembly, and worship. This “Bill Of Rights” did not apply to the “First Americans”, (Indians), for 150 years, until the 20th Century, when they were given U.S. Citizenship.

403 - American Dreams

A brave warrior from a famous raiding tribe of the Plains.  He was a horse Indian and a buffalo hunter when the white man first saw him ride out of a storm.

404 - Before The Storm

Kokopelli, the Humpbacked flute player, and Mother Nature combine to create a new world for the tribes of the Southwest and Mesoamerica.

405 - Birth Of A Nation

In the dark of the moon, a member of one of the military societies of the Plains Indians,  chosen for his bravery and fighting ability, urges his Dog Society Men into battle.

406 - Black Moon Rising

YOU KNOW THE DAY DESTROYS THE NIGHT NIGHT DIVIDES THE DAY TRIED TO RUN TRIED TO HIDE BREAK ON THROUGH TO THE OTHER SIDE - LYRIC’S FROM THE SONG ‘BREAK ON THROUGH’, BY THE DOORS

407 - Break On Through To The Other Side

The Cherokee People were illegally removed from their homes, imprisoned, belongings confiscated, and forced on a winter journey of death to distant lands in the West.  Thousands of souls perished on this “Trail of Tear”… and their souls call out for justice….IMPEACH JACKSON!

408 - Call For Impeachment

“We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal.” - Declaration of Independence

409 - Created Equal

On June 25, 1876, Morning Star, (General Armstrong Custer), and his 264 men met their fate at the junction of the Big Horn and Little Horn rivers as foretold in the stars and a vision to Sitting Bull.

410 - Death Of Morning Star

An effort was made to include the Seminole Of Florida in the general removal to Indian Territory in the West….this brought on war.  Most elusive of the Indian leaders in the Seminole war was Osceola.  Failing to capture this indomitable leader in battle, the Americans treacherously seized him under a flag of truce.

411 - Defiance

Dragging Canoe was a great Cherokee War Chief of the 1700’s.  He defide the U.S. for over 50 years . . . and he predicted the Trail of Tears.  “We had hoped that the white men would not be willing to travel beyond the mountains.  Finely the whole country, which the Cherokees and their fathers have so long occupied; will be demanded, and the remnant of the Real People, once so great and formidable, will be compelled to seek refuge in some distant wilderness.”

412 - Dragging Canoe

Egypt had its locusts, Asiatic countries their cholera, England its black plague.  But it was left for unfortunate Indian Territory to be afflicted with the worse scourge of the 19th century, the Dawes Commission. - Enrolled Oklahoma Indian

413 - Enrollment Day

In 1835, the most infamous of the treaties was negotiated at New Echota, Georgia, the Cherokee capital.  The trety was never ratified, but less than three years later federal troops began to round up the eighteen thousand Cherokees who lived on the land.  By riverboat, wagon andhorseback - but mainly on foot - the Cherokee began their forced EXODUS across the Mississippi.  Over four thousand men, women, and children died on that fateful journey.  The silent graves stretching from the foothills of the Smoky Mountains to their new territory in the West, mark what has come to be known to the Cherokee as the TRAIL OF TEARS.

414 - Exodus

On June 25, 1876, General Armstrong Custer and his 264 men met their fate at the junction of the Big Horn and Little Horn rivers.

415 - First Account

THEY FOLLOW THE MIGRATING BUFFALO, UPON WHICH THEY DEPEND FOR THEIR VERY EXISTANCE.

416 - Following The Herds

When delegates of the newly independent American Colonies met in Philadelphia in 1787 to write a constitution, they took inspiration from many sources, including the Native Americans.  Much of the Constitution came to reflect the Native Americans ideas, but did not include them until the 20th Century, resulting in the loss of lives and the removal of many tribes from their homeland.

417 - Founding Fathers

My heart is filled with joy, when I see you here, as the brooks fill with water when the snows melt in the spring, and I feel glad, as the ponies are when the fresh grass starts in the beginning of the year. I heard of your coming, when I was many sleeps away, and I made but few camps before I met you.  I knew that you had come to do good to me and to my people.  I look for the benefits, which would last forever, and so my face shines with joy, as I look upon you. - Ten Bears

418 - Gathering Of Nations

Since the arrival of Columbus  and the Europeans, the lifestyles, the cultures, the very existence, of Indians have been under siege. Today Indians retain much of their traditional culture and many of their beliefs, but on and off the reservations, Indians live much as Americans do everywhere; they are represented in all professions and trades.  Women are a force in government and education as well as in maintaining the cultural and spiritual life of the community and the home.  Indian men and women have distinguished themselves in the arts and sciences, in the classroom and the courtroom.  The men have long excelled on the athletic field and the battlefield. - “AFTER COLUMBUS” by Herman J. Viola

419 - Iron Horses

1829 Gold was discovered on Cherokee land in Georgia. The following year the state of Georgia passed a law outlawing the Cherokees from mining the gold.  This was the first of several laws that led to the “Trail of Tears’; enforced by Andrew Jackson. 100 years after the first law passed against the Cherokees, the First National Bank of Atlanta issued a twenty dollar bill honoring Andrew Jackson, ( and his legacy, the “Trail of Tears”).

420 - Jackson's Legacy

The Proclamation of 1763 forbade American colonists from settling west of the Appalachians, and ordered those already living there “forthwith to remove themselves.“

421 - Keepers Of The King's Word

From Wakan Tanka,  the Great Spirit, there came a great unifying life force that flowed in and through all things  -  the flowers of the plains, blowing winds, rocks, tree, birds, animals  -  and was the same force that had been breathed into the first man.  Thus all things were kindred, and ere brought together by the same great mystery. - Chief Luther Standing Bear

422 - Leaving Moose Lake

By riverboat, wagon and horseback  -  but mainly on foot  - Andrew Jackson forced the exile of the Cherokee across the Mississippi.  Over four thousand men, women, and children died on that fateful journey.  The silent graves stretching from the foothills of the Smoky mountains to their new territory in the West, mark what has come to be known to the Cherokee as the Trail Of Tears.

423 - Winter Of Thunder And Tears

By riverboat, wagon and horseback  -  but mainly on foot  - Andrew Jackson forced the exile of the Cherokee across the Mississippi.  Over four thousand men, women, and children died on that fateful journey.  The silent graves stretching from the foothills of the Smoky mountains to their new territory in the West, mark what has come to be known to the Cherokee as the Trail Of Tears.

424 - Leaving The Big Pines

The dwelling or “Lodge” of the Medicine Man:  a place of healing, dreams and visions

425 - Medicine Lodge

American Indians have proudly fought for their own nations, as well as serving in every war of the United States, including the Civil War.   Americans Indians proudly fought for both the North and South, despite the fact they were not citizens.

426 - Men Of Virginia

The first successful neighborhood watch took place on June 25, 1876, when General Armstrong Custer and his 264 men met their fate at the junction of the Big Horn and Little Horn rivers.

427 - Neighborhood Watch

The Phoenix rises from the ashes  to start another long life; like the Cherokee Nation that arose from the ashes of the Trail of Tears, to rebuild a new and great nation in Indian Territory.

428 - Out Of The Ashes

The First Americans were promised a “State Of Their Own”, by our founding fathers:  another broken promise. In the 1890’s the federal government was pressured to make Indian Territory a state open to white settlement.  The  5 Civilized Tribes united, hiring lawyers, representatives, and aggressively pursued the federal government for the State of Sequoyah, where the lands would remain together as our “Promised Indian State”.

429 - Promised Lands

The efforts of these proud and freedom—loving people to keep their hunting grounds and live their roving , carefree existence make one of the saddest annals in Indian history.  The people were eventually confined to reservations and gave little trouble until the dark of the moon, when the Ghost Dance religion swept over the Indian country.

430 - Red Man, Black Moon

“Round and Round we go, and still no brass ring”. The white man made us many promises, but he only kept one.  He promised to take our land, and he did.

431 - Red Man On A White Man's Merry-Go-Round

From “First Fire” to “Space Walker”, Commander John Bennett Herrington, (enrolled member of the Chickasaw nation, born September 14, 1958), was the first Native American Indian Astronaut to go into outer space. During NASA flight STS-113 Aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavor in November 2002, mission Specialist 2 Harrington docked the space shuttle to the International Space Station and became the first American Indian to walk in space during  this historic NASA space mission.

432 - Sacred Fire To Space Walker

When we were created we were given our ground to live on and from this time these were our rights. This is all true. We were put here by the Creator. I was not brought from a foreign country and did not come here. I was put here by the Creator. – Chief Weninock, Yakima 1915

433 - Summit Meeting

Cherokees!  The President of the United States has sent me, with a powerful army, to cause you, in obedience to the Treaty of 1835, to join that part of your people who are already established in prosperity, on the other side of the Mississippi.  Unhappily, the two years which were allowed for the purpose, you have suffered to pass away without following, and without making any preparation to follow, and now, or by the time that this solemn address shall reach your distant settlements, the emigration must be commenced in haste, but, I hope, without disorder.  I have no power, by granting a farther delay, to correct the error that you have committed.  The full moon of May is already on the wane, and before another shall have passed away, every Cherokee man, woman and child, in those States, must be in motion to join their brethren in the far West. - General Winfield Scott,  Cherokee Agency, May 10, 1838

434 - The Night The Lights Went Out In Georgia

When delegates of the newly independent American Colonies met in Philadelphia in 1787 to write a constitution, they took inspiration from many sources, including the Native Americans. Benjamin Franklin observed that the Cherokees and Iroquois had a fine working example of representative democracy, with an unwritten constitution that spell out checks and balances, rules of procedure, limits of power and a stress on individual liberty.  Much of the Constitution came to reflect the Native Americans ideas, but did not include them until the 20th Century, resulting in the loss of lives and the removal of many tribes from their homeland.

435 - We The People, III

When delegates of the newly independent American Colonies met in Philadelphia in 1787 to write a constitution, they took inspiration from many sources, including the Native Americans. Benjamin Franklin observed that the Cherokees and Iroquois had a fine working example of representative democracy, with an unwritten constitution that spell out checks and balances, rules of procedure, limits of power and a stress on individual liberty.  Much of the Constitution came to reflect the Native Americans ideas, but did not include them until the 20th Century, resulting in the loss of lives and the removal of many tribes from their homeland.

436 - Where Eagles Dare

Stand Watie led his cavalry in constant raids against Union Forces during the Civil War.  Despite all of their efforts of the vastly more numerous Union Forces they could never catch or defeat General Watie and his men and his harassment continued until the end of the war.  Ultimately, Stand Watie fought on longer than any other Confederate general of the war.  It was not until June 23, 1865 that he signed a cease-fire agreement with Union Forces at Fort Towson in the Choctaw area of Oklahoma, bringing his troops in to lay down their arms worn and weary but never defeated.

437 - Battle Map, 1862-1865

The circle of the artwork represents the friends and IACA family of members around the world. All the figures face in a counter clockwise direction, (in harmony with the rotation of Mother Earth), to better promote and honestly represent American Indian Arts & crafts. In the middle background a “Nova” is expanding outward to represent the creation of IACA.   The six figures in the middle represent the founding members.  The 24 outer night and day figures represent the ethic variety of membership. There are a total of 30 figures in the artwork, one each to celebrate the 30th. Anniversary.

438 - Circle of Friends

When Lt. Henry Timberlake visited the area in 1762, most of the towns still had Muskogean names, i.e., Tallassee, Chilhowie, Settiquo, Tanasi, Toquo, Tommotley and Tuskeegee, even though they were occupied by Cherokee.  Only Chota founded in 1735 and Mialaquo founded about 1755 bore Cherokee names.Although there had been a number of visitors to Cherokee Territory in the 1700’s, documentation of Cherokee customs, traditions and lifestyle was sparse.  That changed with Henry Timberlake’s “Map and Memoirs”, (the most complete account of 18th Century Cherokee life).

439 - Over The Hills

Three Phoenix’s rise up “FROM ONE FIRE”, representing the Cherokee Nation, Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians and United Keetoowah Band.  Flying in a counter clockwise direction in harmony with the rotation of Mother Earth they complete the circle around the sacred fire.

440 - From One Fire

Three groups of People ascend from the “Sacred Fire”,  representing the Cherokee Nation, Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians and United Keetoowah Band.  Walking in a counter clockwise direction in harmony with the rotation of Mother Earth they walk homeward to complete the circle around the sacred fire.

441 - From The Sacred Fire

Stand Watie led his cavalry in constant raids against Union Forces during the Civil War.  Despite all of their efforts of the vastly more numerous Union Forces they could never catch or defeat General Watie and his men and his harassment continued until the end of the war.  Ultimately, Stand Watie fought on longer than any other Confederate general of the war.  It was not until June 23, 1865 that he signed a cease-fire agreement with Union Forces at Fort Towson in the Choctaw area of Oklahoma, bringing his troops in to lay down their arms worn and weary but never defeated.

442 - Cherokee Braves

ONE OF SIX PAINTINGS COMMISIONED BY THE CHEROKEE NATION IN 2013
FOR THE CHEROKEE NATION’S VETERANS CENTER
.

American Indians have proudly fought for their own nations, as well as serving in every war of the United States and branch of the military; including the medical corps, military police, engineering corps and the cavalry.  The Indians offered their services, lives and money in these wars, and in WWI, more served in proportion to their number and means than any other race or class of the population, despite the fact the United States did not universally give Indians citizenship until 1924.

443 - Cherokee Freedom Fighters

ONE OF SIX PAINTINGS COMMISIONED BY THE CHEROKEE NATION IN 2013
FOR THE CHEROKEE NATION’S VETERANS CENTER
.

American Indians have proudly fought for their own nations, as well as serving in every war of the United States and branch of the military; including the medical corps, military police, engineering corps and the cavalry.  The Indians offered their services, lives and money in these wars, and in WWI, more served in proportion to their number and means than any other race or class of the population, despite the fact the United States did not universally give Indians citizenship until 1924.

444 - Cherokee Warriors, Fallen Heroes

ONE OF SIX PAINTINGS COMMISIONED BY THE CHEROKEE NATION IN 2013
FOR THE CHEROKEE NATION’S VETERANS CENTER
.

American Indians have proudly fought for their own nations, as well as serving in every war of the United States and branch of the military; including the medical corps, military police, engineering corps and the cavalry.  The Indians offered their services, lives and money in these wars, and in WWI, more served in proportion to their number and means than any other race or class of the population, despite the fact the United States did not universally give Indians citizenship until 1924.

445 - Defenders of Freedom

ONE OF SIX PAINTINGS COMMISIONED BY THE CHEROKEE NATION IN 2013
FOR THE CHEROKEE NATION’S VETERANS CENTER
.

American Indians have proudly fought for their own nations, as well as serving in every war of the United States and branch of the military; including the medical corps, military police, engineering corps and the cavalry.  The Indians offered their services, lives and money in these wars, and in WWI, more served in proportion to their number and means than any other race or class of the population, despite the fact the United States did not universally give Indians citizenship until 1924.

446 - Freedom Isn't Free

ONE OF SIX PAINTINGS COMMISIONED BY THE CHEROKEE NATION IN 2013
FOR THE CHEROKEE NATION’S VETERANS CENTER
.

American Indians have proudly fought for their own nations, as well as serving in every war of the United States and branch of the military; including the medical corps, military police, engineering corps and the cavalry.  The Indians offered their services, lives and money in these wars, and in WWI, more served in proportion to their number and means than any other race or class of the population, despite the fact the United States did not universally give Indians citizenship until 1924.

447 - Welcome Home

ONE OF SIX PAINTINGS COMMISIONED BY THE CHEROKEE NATION IN 2013
FOR THE CHEROKEE NATION’S VETERANS CENTER

Ned Christie (December 14, 1852 – November 3, 1892), also known as NeDe WaDe in Cherokee, was a Cherokee statesman. Ned was a member of the executive council in the Cherokee Nation senate, and served as one of three advisers to Chief Bushyhead. He was notable for holding off American lawmen in what was later called Ned Christie's War, after being accused, wrongfully according to testimony in 1918, of murdering a United States Marshal. This gave him notoriety as an outlaw, and he was eventually killed by lawmen.

448 - Ned Christie's War

ONE OF THREE PAINTINGS COMMISIONED BY THE CHEROKEE
NATION IN MAY, 2014 FOR THE CHEROKEE TAHLEQUAH CASINO.

The First Americans were promised a “State Of Their Own”, by our founding fathers: another broken promise. In the 1890’s the federal government was pressured to make Indian Territory a state open to white settlement. The 5 Civi-lized Tribes united, hiring lawyers, representatives, and aggres-sively pursued the federal government for the State of Sequoyah, where the lands would remain together as our “Promised Indian State”.

449 - Promised Indian State

ONE OF THREE PAINTINGS COMMISIONED BY THE CHEROKEE
NATION IN MAY, 2014 FOR THE CHEROKEE TAHLEQUAH CASINO.

In 1866, after the American Civil War, the federal government required new treaties with the tribes that had supported the Confederacy, and forced them into land and other concessions. As a result of the Reconstruction Treaties, The Five Civilized Tribes were required to emancipate their slaves and offer them full citizenship in the tribes if they wanted to stay in the Nations. This forced many of the tribes in Indian Territory into making concessions. The US officials forced the cession of some 2,000,000 acres (8,100 km2) of land in the center of the Indian Nation Territory. Elias C. Boudinot, then a railroad lobbyist, wrote an article published an article in the Chicago Times on February 17, 1879, that popularized the term Unassigned Lands to refer to this tract. Soon the popular press began referring to the people agitating for its settlement as Boomers. To prevent settlement of the land by European-Americans, President Rutherford B. Hayes, issued a proclamation forbidding unlawful entry into Indian Territory in April 1879.

450 - The Winds Of Change

ONE OF THREE PAINTINGS COMMISIONED BY THE CHEROKEE
NATION IN MAY, 2014 FOR THE CHEROKEE TAHLEQUAH CASINO.

In 1883 Congress authorized the establishment of an organization that became know as the Dawes Commission.  The hope was that the commission could persuade the governments of the Five Civilized Tribes to negotiate themselves out of existence  — an essential first step in implementing a policy of allotting land to each individual Indian.  Allotment was supposed to promote assimilation into the dominant culture, clear the way for converting Indian Territory into a state, and satisfy powerful groups seeking opportunities for economic development and profit.  However, when the tribal governments refused to cooperate in their own demise.  Congress used its legislative power to abolish them and gave the Dawes Commission the almost impossible task of determining who was entitled to a share of land.  Many full-bloods did not want an allotment of land and returned their Certificate of Allotment to the Dawes Commission with the annotation, “I don’t want these certificates.  If I want them at all I will come myself and get them”.

451 - No Allotment for Aggie

The news of oil in commercial quantities at Bartlesville, Indian Territory, in the    Cherokee Nation just east of the Osage Nation, prompted the Santa Fe Railway to lay track to town site. Wildcatters, lease hounds and roustabouts hopped trains to Bartlesville and the boom was on!

452 - Black Gold

May 6, 1828 President Van Buren signed a land patent from the United States Of  America, granting the Cherokee nation, lands west of the Mississippi, to have and hold forever, as long as the grass grows and the waters flow.

453 - To Have And Hold Forever

he Phoenix rises from the ashes  to start another long life; like the Cherokee Nation that arose from the ashes of the Trail of Tears,  and the Cherokee Phoenix newspaper that arose from the ashes of the fire in Georgia, to rebuild a new great nation and newspaper in Indian Territory.

454 - Out Of The Fire And Ashes

The Declaration of Independence proclaims, “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.”  The “First Americans” were denied these rights until the 20th. Century, resulting in the loss of life, liberty and happiness.

455 - Unalienable Rights Denied

In the beginning there was no fire, and the world was cold, until the Thunders sent their lightning and put fire into the bottom of a hollow sycamore tree which grew on an island. The animals knew it was there, because they could see the smoke coming out at the top, but they could not get to it on account of the water, so they held a council to decide what to do. This was a long time ago. Every animal that could fly or swim tried  to go after the fire, but they all failed.  The birds, snakes, and four-footed animals, all had some excuse for not going, because they were all afraid of the fire.  At last the Water Spider said she would go.  So she spun a thread from her body and wove it into a tusti bowl, which she fastened on her back. Then she crossed over to the island where the fire was still burning. She put one little coal of fire into her bowl, and came back with it, and ever since we have had fire, and the Water Spider still keeps her tusti bowl.

456 - First Fire

In Cherokee mythology, Selu was the First Woman and goddess of the corn. (Her name literally means "maize" or "corn" in the Cherokee language.) Selu was killed by her twin sons, who feared her power; but with her dying instructions she taught them to plant and farm corn, so that her spirit was resurrected with each harvest.

457 - Selu

The Nunne Hi , “The people who live anywhere” were a race of spirit people who lived in the highlands of the old Cherokee country and could only be seen when they wanted to be seen.They were fond of music, dancing, helping lost travelers and helping defend the Cherokee people in time of war.  Some people have thought that they are the same as the “Little People”, but they are not.

458 - Nunne Hi, The Spirit People

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